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Green Tea & Cancer - Read what noted Oncologist Dr. Mitchell Gaynor's has to say about green tea. Select from our updated articles database for specific cancers:

Esophageal Cancer: General

Date: 01-01-2010
Studies in laboratory animals have found that green tea polyphenols inhibit the growth of esophageal cancer cells. However, clinical studies in people have produced conflicting findings. For example, one large-scale population-based clinical study found that green tea offered significant protection against the development of esophageal cancer (particularly among women). Another population-based clinical study revealed just the opposite -- green tea consumption was associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer. In fact, the stronger and hotter the tea, the greater the risk. Given these conflicting results, further research is needed before scientists can recommend green tea for the prevention of esophageal cancer.

Green Tea & Esophageal Cancer - U.S.C. Study

Date: 01-01-2003
Experimental studies have shown that tea and tea polyphenols have anticarcinogenic properties. In the study by University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, a nested case-control study design was used to investigate the association between prediagnostic urinary tea polyphenol markers and subsequent risk of gastric and esophageal cancers. One hundred and ninety incident cases of gastric cancer and 42 cases of esophageal cancer occurring in members of the Shanghai Cohort (18 244 men aged 45-64 years at recruitment with up to 12 years of follow-up) were compared with 772 cohort control subjects. After exclusion of cases diagnosed under 4 years follow-up, urinary EGC positivity showed a statistically significant inverse association with gastric cancer was found. The protective effect was primarily seen among subjects with low (below population median) serum carotenes. Similar tea polyphenol-cancer risk associations were observed when the gastric cancer and esophageal cancer sites were combined. The study provides direct evidence that tea polyphenols may act as chemopreventive agents against gastric and esophageal cancer development.

Green Tea & Esophageal Cancer - Rutgers Study

Date: 01-01-2003
A study done by the College of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, suggest that EGCG was converted to EGC in the oral cavity, and both catechins were absorbed through the oral mucosa through drinking green tea rather than using extracts. Because of the possible application of tea in the prevention of oral and esophageal cancers, the salivary levels of tea catechins were determined in six human volunteers after drinking tea. Saliva samples were collected after thoroughly rinsing the mouth with water. After drinking green tea preparations equivalent to two to three cups of tea, peak saliva levels of (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC; 11.7-43.9 microg/ml), EGC-3-gallate (EGCG; 4.8-22 microg/ml), and (-)-epicatechin (EC; 1.8-7.5 microg/ml) were observed after a few minutes. These levels were 2 orders of magnitude higher than those in the plasma. Taking tea solids in capsules resulted in no detectable salivary catechin level. Holding an EGCG solution in the mouth resulted in EGCG and EGC in the saliva and, subsequently, EGC in the urine. The present results suggest that slowly drinking tea is a very effective way of delivering rather high concentrations of catechins to the oral cavity and then the esophagus.

Green Tea & Esophageal Cancer - Animal Study

Date: 01-01-2003
Studies in laboratory animals have found that green tea polyphenols inhibit the growth of esophageal cancer cells. However, clinical studies in people have produced conflicting findings. For example, one large-scale population-based clinical study found that green tea offered significant protection against the development of esophageal cancer (particularly among women). Another population-based clinical study revealed just the opposite -- green tea consumption was associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer. In fact, the stronger and hotter the tea, the greater the risk. Given these conflicting results, further research is needed before scientists can recommend green tea for the prevention of esophageal cancer.
References: Life Extension Magazine and other studies added.

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Challa A et al. Interactive suppression of aberrant crypt foci induced by azoxymethane in rat colon by phytic acid and green tea. Carcinogenesis 1997; 10:2023-26
Chen ZP, et al. Green tea epigallocatechin gallate shows a pronounced growth inhibitory effect on cancerous cells but not on their normal counterparts. Cancer Lett 1998; 129:173-79
Chung FL et al. Inhibition of lung carcinogenesis by black tea in Fischer rats treated with a tobacco-specific carcinogen: Caffeine as an important constituent. Cancer Res 1998;58:4096-4101
Deng ZY, Tao BY, et al. Effect of green tea and black tea on blood glucose, triglycerides, and antioxidants in aged rats. J Agricult Food Chem 1998;46:3875-78
Francheschi S et al. Influence of food groups and food diversity on breast cancer risk in Italy. Int J Cancer 1995; 63:785-89
Goodwin Sarah Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 18-Apr-2004
Hamilton-Miller JM. Anti-cariogenic properties of tea (Camellia sinensis). J Med Microbiol 2001;50:299-302
Hara Y. Influence of tea catechins on the digestive tract. J Cel Biochem 1997; Suppl 27: 52-58
Hibasami H et al. Induction of apoptosis in human stomach cancer cells by green tea catechins. Oncol Repetition 1998; 5:527-29
Hirose M et al. Inhibition of mammary gland carcinogenesis by green tea catechins and other naturally occurring antioxidants in female Sprague-Dawley rats pretreated with MDBA. Cancer Lett 1994; 83:149-56
Hong J, et al. Effects of purified green and black tea polyphenols on cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid in human colon mucosa and colon tumor tissues. Biochem Pharmacol 2001;62:1175-83
Hoshiyama Y, et al. A prospective study of stomach cancer death in relation to green tea consumption in Japan. Br J Cancer 2002;87:309-13
Huang MT, et al. Effects of tea, decaffeinated tea, and caffeine on UVB light-induced complete carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice: demonstration of caffeine as a biologically important constituent of tea. Cancer Res 1997;57:2623-9
Hsu SD, et al. Chemoprevention of oral cancer by green tea. Gen Dent 2002;50:140-6
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Komori A, Yasunami J, et al. Anticarcinogenic activity of green tea polyphenols. Jpn J Clin Oncol 1993; 23:186-90
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Larsson, Susanna, Wolk Alicja, Karolinksa Institute. A relationship between the amounts of tea a middle-age woman drinks and her risk for ovarian cancer. Archives of Internal Medicine. Dec. 12 issue.
Lean ME et al. Dietary flavonols protect diabetic human lymphocytes against oxidative damage to DNA. Diabetes 1999; 48:176-81
Lee IP et al. Chemopreventive effects of green tea against cigarette smoke-induced mutations in humans. J Cell Biochem 1997; Suppl 27:68-75
Lee YK, et al. VEGF Receptor Phosphorylation Status and Apoptosis is Modulated by a Green Tea Component, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in B cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Blood 2004;104(3):788-94
Liao S, Hipakka RA. Selective inhibition of steroid 5-alpha-reductase isozymes by tea epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214:833-38
Liao S, Umekita Y et al. Growth inhibition and regression of human prostate and breast tumors in athymic mice by tea epigallocatechin gallate. Cancer Lett 1995; 96:239-43
Lin YL, Cheng CY, et al. Hypolipidemic effect of green tea leaves through induction of antioxidant and phase II enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase in rats. J Agricult Food Chem 1998;46:1893-99
Lu LH, Lee SS, Huang HC. Epigallocatechin suppression of proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells: correlation with c-jun and JNK. Brit J Pharmacol 1998;124:1227-37
McCarty MF. Polyphenol-mediated inhibition of AP-1 transactivating activity may slow cancer growth by impeding angiogenesis and tumor invasiveness. Med Hypoth 1998; 50:511-14
Morre D, Morre DJ. Findings on epigallocatechin gallate and tNOX inhibition presented at the 38th annual meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology; summary available at http//
Naasani I et al. Telomerase inhibition, telomere shortening, and senescence of cancer cells by tea catechins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 249:391-96
Nagata C et al. Associations of coffee, green tea, and caffeine intakes with serum concentrations of estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal Japanese women. Nutr Cancer 1998; 30:21-24
Nakachi K, Suemasu K, et al. Influence of drinking green tea on breast cancer malignancy among Japanese patients. Jpn J Cancer Res 1998;89:254-61
Oguri A et al. Inhibitory effects of antioxidants on formation of heterocyclic amines. Mutat Res 1998; 402:237-45
Otsuka T, Ogo T, et al. Growth inhibition of leukemic cells by epigallocatechin gallate, the main constituent of green tea. Life Sciences 1998; 63:1397-1403
Parshad R, Sanford RR, et al. Protective action of plant polyphenols on radiation-induced chromatid breaks in cultured human cells. Anticancer Res 1998;18:3263-66
Pashka AG et al. Induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines by the green tea component, epigallocatechin gallate. Cancer Lett 1998;130:1-7
Pisters KM, et al. Phase I trial of oral green tea extract in adult patients with solid tumors. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:1830-8.
Proniuk S, et al. Preformulation study of epigallocatechin gallate, a promising antioxidant for topical skin cancer prevention. J Pharm Sci 2002;91:111-6
Quin G et al. Inhibition of aflatoxin B1-induced initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat by green tea. Cancer Lett 1997; 112:149-54
Reuters. Green tea blocks angiogenesis. Internet Health News, 3-31-1999
Sai I, Kai S et al. Protective effects of green tea on hepatotoxicity, oxidative DNA damage and cell proliferation in the rat liver, induced by repeated oral administration of 2-nitropropane. Food Chem Toxicol 1998; 6:1043
Sartippour MR, et al. Green tea inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induction in human breast cancer cells. J Nutr 2002;132:2307-11.
Sazuka M, Imazawa H, et al. Inhibition of collagenases from mouse lung carcinoma cells by green tea catechins and black tea theaflavins. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1997; 61:1504-06
Smith DM, et al. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin inhibits DNA replication and consequently induces leukemia cell apoptosis. Int J Mol Med 2001;7:645-52
Suganuma M, Okabe S, et al. Synergistic effects of epigallocatechin gallate with epicatechin, sunlilndac, or tamoxifen on cancer-preventive activity in the human lung cancer cell line PC-9. Cancer Res 1999;59:44-7
Sugiyama T, Sadzuka Y. Combination of theanine with doxorubicin inhibits hepatic metastasis of M5076 ovarian sarcoma. Clin Cancer Res 1999; 5:413-16
Sugiyama T, Sadzuka Y. Enhancing effects of green tea components on the antitumor activity of adriamycin against M5076 ovarian sarcoma. Cancer Lett 1998; 133:19-26
Sun CL, et al. Urinary tea polyphenols in relation to gastric and esophageal cancers: a prospective study of men in Shanghai, China. Carcinogenesis 2002;23:1497-503.
Tosetti F, Ferrari N, De Flora S. Angioprevention: angiogenesis is a common and key target for cancer chemopreventive agents. FASEB J 2002;16:2-14
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Valcic S et al. Inhibitory effect of six green tea catechins and caffeine on the growth of four selected human tumor cell lines. Anticancer Drugs 1996; 7:461-68
Wang ZY, et al. Inhibitory effect of green tea on the growth of established skin papillomas in mice. Cancer Res 1992;52:6657-65.
Yamane T, Nakatsni H et al. Inhibitory effects and toxicity of green tea polyphenols for gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Cancer 1996;77(suppl):1662-67
Yan YS. Effect of Chinese tea extract on the immune function of mice bearing tumors and their antitumor activity. Chung Hua Yu Fang 1992; 26:5-7
Yang CS, et al. Blood and urine levels of tea catechins after ingestion of different amounts of green tea by human volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998;7:351-4.
Yang CS, et al. Prevention of carcinogenesis by tea polyphenols. Drug Metab Rev 2001;33:237-53
Yang CS, et al. Human salivary tea catechin levels and catechin esterase activities: implications in human cancer prevention studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8:83-9
Yang FJ et al. Green tea polyphenols block endotoxin-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha production and lethality in murine model. J Nutr 1998; 128:2334-40
Yang GY, Liao J, et al. Inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cell lines by tea polyphenols. Carcinogenesis 1998; 19:611-16
Zhang, M, Binns, CW, Lee, A Tea Consumption and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Case control Study in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev (2002) 11:713-718.
Zhen Y et al. Green tea extract inhibits nucleoside transport and potentiates the antitumor effect of antimetabolites. Chin Med Sci 1991; 6:1-5
Zhu BT, Taneja N et al. Effects of tea polyphenols and flavonoids on liver microsomal glucuronidation of estradiol and estrone. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1998;64:207-15

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