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What Does A Tea Leaf Contain? - Fresh-cut tealeaves consist of 75-80% water. A variety of green tea flavors are formed through the combination of three main taste components:
Catechin– Bitterness & Astringency
Caffeine– Bitterness
Theanine & Amino Acids– Flavor & Sweetness

In this section you'll learn what's in a tea leaf, and about the effect of these specific ingredients in green tea: Catechin, Caffeine, the Amino Acids Theanine & Butyric Acid, Vitamins AB1, B2, B3, C, E, F, K, P, & U, Chlorophyll, Minerals, Pectin, Saccharides, Saponin and a handy comparison of ingredients in green teas.
Catechin - Catechin is a tannin peculiar to green tea because the black tea fermentation process reduces catechins in black tea. Catechin is a powerful, water soluable polyphenol and antioxidant that is easily oxidized.
Several thousand types are available in the plant world. As many as two thousand are known to have a flavon structure and are called flavonoids. Catechin is one of them.

Research aimed at finding the active compounds in green tea revealed that its protective effects are due chiefly to catechins. Tea contains four main catechin substances: EC, ECg, EGC and EGCg, all of which are inclusively called catechin. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most powerful of these catechins. EGCG as an antioxidant is about 25-100 times more potent than vitamins C and E. One cup of green tea provides 10-40 mg of polyphenols and has antioxidant effects greater than a serving of broccoli, spinach, carrots, or strawberries. The high antioxidant activity of green tea makes it beneficial for protecting the body from oxidative damage due to free radicals. Research shows that green tea may help the arterial wall by reducing lipids. Green tea can protect against experimentally induced DNA damage, and slow or halt the initiation and progression of undesirable cell colonies. Studies show evidence that green tea provides immunoprotective qualities, particularly in the case of patients undergoing radiation or chemotherapy. White blood cell count appear to be maintained more effectively in patients consuming green tea compared to non-supplemented patients.

Green tea is manufactured from fresh, unfermented tea leaves; the oxidation of catechins is minimal, and hence they are able to serve as antioxidants. Researchers believe that catechin is effective because it easily sticks to proteins, blocking bacteria from adhering to cell walls and disrupting their ability to destroy them. Viruses have ‘hooks’ on their surfaces and can attach to cell walls. The catechin in green tea prevents viruses from adhering and causing harm. Catechin reacts with toxins created by harmful bacteria (many of which belong to the protein family) and harmful metals such as lead, mercury, chrome, and cadmium.

Tannin in green tea is mostly catechin and is a key component in its taste providing the astringency. The amount of catechin tends to increase as the season progresses. Spring tea (first crop) contains 12-13% catechin (13-17% as tannin) while summer tea (third crop) contains 13-14% (17-21% as tannin). If leaf order is compared, younger leaves include more catechin than mature ones. First leaves contain 14%, second 13%, third 12%, and fourth 12%. This explains why second and third crop summer teas are more astringent while Bancha is less so. Gyokuro green tea, whose leaves are covered during growth, contains less catechin and astringency (10% as tannin) because it gets less sunshine then Sencha.

Our Catechin is Primarily for those drinking green tea to heal through its active ingredient: Catechin. Tannin in green tea is mostly catechin and forms a key component in its astringent taste. NOTE: Individuals with allergies to catechin-rich foods like red wine, dark chocolate (cocoa), cherries, apples & cranberries should consult a physician before drinking. This is a concentrated fresh catechin product.
1.5oz (40g) -$13.99-      BUY NOW

Health Benefit:

Catechin, has been found to outperform Vitamin C and beta-carotene ten times in scavenging the alkyl peroxyl radical. One study found green tea polyphenols to be more potent antioxidants than Vitamin C, Vitamin E, rosemary extract, and even curcumin in some systems.

According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, in laboratory studies using animals, catechins scavenged oxidants before cell damage occurred, reduced the number and size of tumors, and inhibited the growth of cancer cells. White tea is said to be even more effective. However, human studies have proven more contradictory, perhaps due to such factors as variances in diet, environments, and populations. Below is a list of benefits:

Eliminates free radicals preventing cancer development by blocking the growth of substance that causes cancer. This also arrests aging.

- Connects with cholesterol, absorbs and blocks it.

- Decreases cholesterol level in blood and prevents bad cholesterol caused by oxidation, which prevents narrowing of blood vessel caused by the build-up of bad cholesterol.

- Prevents arterial sclerosis, thrombosis, heart attacks and brain strokes.

- Effective for high blood pressure.

- Blocks a function of enzyme that digests and absorbs sugar and prevents diabetes.

- Suppresses aggregation of platelets and prevents thrombosis such as heart attacks and brain strokes.

- Fights bacteria and viruses and prevents influenza, food poisoning and cavities including including: O-157, Dysentery, Cholera, Mouth bacteria that can damage teeth, gums, and lead to periodontal disease, Piccoli, which causes gastric ulcers.

- Improves conditions of intestines by blocking growth of bad bacteria and enhancing good bacteria like bifid bacteria. This regulates the function of intestines.

- Connects with substances (breath, fish, meat, human waste, etc.) and prevents odor.

- Detoxifies by connecting with poisonous substance and harmful heavy metals (lead, chrome, mercury, cadmium, etc.) and dissolves it.

- Changes harmful ultraviolet rays into non-harmful light in a plant to protect it.

- Gargling with greentea is believed to be an effective way to protect oneself from influenza because of tea’s anti-viral functions.


Color:
White
Odor:
Bitter Astringent
Amount:
10-18%
Caffeine - A cup of green tea contains about 20 to 30 mg of caffeine, a stimulant affecting the central nervous system. It is an important quality in green tea providing some of its astringency.

Japanese people drink green tea to soothe hangovers and this is because the caffeine in green tea encourages metabolization of alcohol. On a side note: it is said that the habit of drinking green tea started in Japanese history from its refreshing effects caused by caffeine.

Caffeine is widely know for its awakening property, and the caffeine contained in green tea is no exception. Taking in appropriate amounts of caffeine encourages brain and muscle exercise, and strengthens stamina.

A cup of green tea contains about 20-30mg of caffeine, normally enough to produce the stimulant effects typically associated with caffeine. A cup of green tea steeped in boiled water for 5 minutes will contain between 22 to 29 mg of caffeine – about 15% less than an equal serving of Coca-Cola. An equal sized cup of coffee will contain between 80 – 100 mg of caffeine.

However, because green tea also contains theanine, caffeine effects are counteracted and little if any stimulation actually occurs. The caffeine-counteraction effect of theanine is being further researched. Theanine is a very important relaxing component unique to green tea and you can learn more about it below.

Summer crops have a little more caffeine in them but not enough to make a significant difference. Similar to catechin and amino acid, young tea buds contain higher amounts of caffeine than mature buds. Teas like Houjicha and Genmaicha (roasted for processing in high temperatures) are low in caffeine content because caffeine is released as a gas from solid substances when heated. White Tea also contains less caffeine bacause it is less processed.

Given the amount of caffeine it contains, a cup of tea would

Removing Cafeine Naturally:

1. Dr Andrew Weil, the noted Doctor and Nutritionist provides another simple solution to eliminate caffeine in tea without having to depend on decaffenated tea (which also bleeds off some of the nutrients in the decaffenation process). Dr Weil states that you can remove most of the caffeine on your own with a very simple process. All you have to do is steep the tea for 45 seconds in hot water and then pour off the liquid. Next, add more hot water and steep as you normally would to brew a cup of that tea. Up to 80 percent of the caffeine is released in the first infusion of water so only minimal amounts will remain when you add water the second time. This method eliminates very little of the tea's flavor and aroma.

2. Altenatively Health Canada recommends that if you wish to reduce the caffeine level in tea, briefly rinse the tea leaves in extremely hot water and it will reduce the caffeine content between 25-50% with only a minor effect on taste.

Processed decaffenated tea undergoes one of two processes: One, which makes use of the solvent ethyl acetate, retains only 30 percent of the polyphenols. The other is a preferable, natural process that uses only water and carbon dioxide and is called “effervescence.” It retains 95 percent of the healthy polyphenols. We only sell the latter:

There are two decaffeinating methods. One uses the solvent ethyl acetate, retaining only 30 percent of the healthy poly phenols. We use the natural process using water and carbon dioxide (C02) called “effervescence.” It retains 95 percent of the poly phenols. We only sell this naturally processed decaf green tea.
(4oz) -$15.99-              BUY NOW

Health Benefit: Typically associated as a stimulant effecting central nervous system and mental alertness. Prevents sleepiness and speeds recovery from fatigue. Caffeine also enhances athletic ability and endurance. When caffeine is taken together with exercise, subcutaneous fat (paniculus adiposus) is metabolized as an energy source rather than depleting glycogen stores, leading to increased stamina. In addition, caffeine is considered a good remedy for hangovers because caffeine blocks absorption of alcohol and enhances its metabolization. Has a diuretic function (enhances urination), which encourages detoxification and the discharge of body wastes and natrium (Na) that raises blood pressure. Activates blood circulation.

Caffeine Content Comparisons - Various Beverages
The approximate caffeine content of various beverages
Milligrams of Caffeine
Item
Avg.
per serving
Range
Per
oz.
Coffee (5 oz.cup)
80 
40 - 170
16.00 
Cola (12 oz. can)
45 
30 - 60
3.75 
Black Tea (1 tea bag - 8 oz. cup)
40 
25 - 110
5.00 
Oolong Tea (1 tea bag - 8 oz. cup)
30 
12 - 55
3.75 
Green Tea (1 tea bag - 8 oz. cup)
20 
8 - 30
2.50 
White Tea (1 tea bag - 8 oz. cup)
15 
6 - 25
2.00 
Decaf Tea (1 tea bag - 8 oz. cup)
1 - 4
0.50 
Herbal Tea (1 bag - 8 oz cup Note: herbal tea is made from non-tea plants.
0
0.00 
NOTE: An average serving of coffee contains the most caffeine, yet the same serving size of tea provides only 1/2 to 1/3 as much. (Ref.: Caffeine by The Institute of Food Technologists' Expert Panel on Food Safety & Nutrition.) One of the more confusing aspects of caffeine content is the fact that coffee contains less caffeine than tea when measured in its dry form. The caffeine content of a prepared cup of coffee is significantly higher than the caffeine content of a prepared cup of tea.

Caffeine Content - Black vs. Green Tea
The approximate % of caffeine
Item
Average % per serving
Black Tea
0.05% 
Gyokuro Green Tea
0.02%
Sencha Green Tea
0.015% 
Houjicha Green Tea
0.008% 
Genmaicha Green Tea
0.008% 
Hyakunencha Tea
0.001% 

Amino Acid (L-Theanine: Caffeine Counteraction) - Theanine is an amino acid found in tea that produces a calming effect on the brain (Yokogoshi et al. 1998b). There are about 20 different types of amino acids in tea. More than 60% of these amino acids consist of

theanine, which is unique to green tea because the steaming process does not eliminate it. Theanine has a similar structure to glutamine providing an elegant taste and sweetness in green tea. L-theanine is a healthy amino acid that is only found in tea plants and certain mushrooms.

Some amino acids are combined with proteins, producing tea leaves, while other amino acids turn into catechin. There are more significant amounts of amino acids contained in early-crop tea and are abundant in tea buds. The content of amino acids is significantly lower in mature buds. Gyokuro green tea leaves are grown in a shaded environment, and contain more amino acids because the production of catechin is restricted. Both Gyokuro and Shincha (first-crop green tea buds) which contain lower amounts of catechin, have a slightly sweeter, more flavorful taste. Bancha, which contains higher amounts of catechin, has a more subtle taste.

Health Benefit:
Japanese researchers have discovered that theanine is a caffeine antagonist, meaning that it offsets the "hyper" effect of caffeine (Kakuda et al. 2000). That is why many people will have a "soothing" cup of tea and not a soothing cup of coffee. Theanine does not cause drowsiness like kava kava, nor does it interfere with the ability to think clearly like prescription tranquilizers.

Theanine also helps to protect nerve cells in the brain, lengthening the life of these cells. It is linked to increased alpha brain wave production and is considered a natural antidepressant and stress reliever. Japanese studies link consumption of L-theanine with strengthening the immune system. L-theanine is often added to energy drinks and is known to give a 6-hour sustainable energy boost.

Theanine easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and exerts subtle changes in biochemistry that cause a tranquilizing effect. The production of GABA, the brain chemical known for its calming effect, is increased after taking theanine. Increased GABA can also put you in a better mood and create a sense of well-being. Dopamine, another brain chemical with mood-enhancing properties is also increased by theanine.

Green tea contains a much higher concentration of theanine than other teas. Theanine has been proven to lower blood pressure (Abe et al. 1995; Yokogoshi et al. 1995; Yokogoshi et al. 1998a). It works through its GABA enhancing effects. Along with its calming effect on the brain, GABA also lowers blood pressure.

Color:
White
Odor:
Sweet/Tasty
Amount:
1.5-3% pr 100g

Amino Acid (Butyric Acid) -
Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) is produced if tealeaves are left without oxygen. Regular crude tea processing produces a tea with GABA.
Health Benefit: Suppresses high blood pressure.
Color:
White
Odor:
Particular
Amount:
Particular


Vitamin A (Carotene) - Several types of carotene exist in tea leaves. ß-carotene is the most prevalent (22mg%). ß-Carotene converts to Vitamin A once absorbed in the body. Carotene content is high in quality teas.

Vitamin A (Carotene) - Several types of carotene exist in tea leaves. ß-carotene is the most prevalent (22mg%). ß-Carotene converts to Vitamin A once absorbed in the body. Carotene content is high in quality teas.
Matcha contains 29,000 µg, Gyokuro, 21,000 µg, Sencha, 13,000 µg and Bancha, 14,000 µg. These amounts are much higher than what is found in carrots and tomatoes.

Health Benefit: Promotes better vision. Among the carotene types, ß-carotene particularly has strong antioxidant effects, eliminating free radicals. Antioxidant effects help prevent aging and cancer.

Top Twelve Foods Containing Vitamin A [Carotene] (unit= mg /100g)
1.
Matcha
29,000
2.
Amanori (sweet dried seaweed)
25,000
3. Iwanori (dried seaweed)
22,000
4. Gyokuro
21,000
5. Chili Pepper (dried)
20,000
6. Oolong
15,000
7. Bancha
14,000
8. Sencha
Kamiricha (Pan Fried Tea)
Chili Pepper
13,000
9. Houjicha
12,000
10. Shiso Leaves (fresh)
Wakame-Seaweed
8,700
11. Notes Carrot (fresh)
Parsley (fresh)
7,300
12. Tomato (fresh)
390
Note: 1 µg (microgram) is 1/1,000,000 g.
Color:
White
Odor:
Particular
Amount:
1-.6mg per 100g

Vitamin B1 - Thiamine - This vitamin is necessary for proper metabolism of sugar, particularly essential for Asians, whose primary nutrition comes from rice. Amount per 100 g of tea: 600 µg in Matcha
Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
Necessary for red blood cell formation, antibody production, and cell respiration and growth. This vitamin also helps tissues of the skin, hair, nails, and hair utilize oxygen
Vitamin B3 - Niacin
Important for the release of energy from carbohydrates and fats, the metabolism of proteins, making certain hormones, and assisting in the formation of red blood cells. It also imrpoves the blood
cholesterol profile. Bancha, Gyokuro, and Houjicha are high in niacin.

Health Benefit:
Maintains proper skin condition, lowers cholesterol. Currently being researched for helping to prevent and control diabetes.
Color:
White
Odor:
Particular
Amount:
.4-.6mg per 100g
Note: 1 µg (microgram) is 1/1,000,000 g.
Vitamin C
Necessary for collagen growth, the substance that connects cells. Sencha contains significant amounts of Vitamin C (250mg per 100g of tea). Fermented teas (black, oolong tea) contain far
less because vitamin C dissolves in the fermentation process. Teas grown in shaded environments, such as Gyokuro, produce a lower amount of vitamin C compared to none-shade grown teas.

Health Benefit:
Antioxidant vitamin that eliminates free radicals preventing cancer and aging. Antiviral/antibacterial function assists in preventing colds. Collagen growth factor cleanses skin.

Top Ten Foods Containing Vitamin C (unit= mg /100g)
1.
Guava
270
2.
Sencha Green tea
250
3. Kamairicha (Panfried Tea)
Parsley
200
4. Broccoli (fresh)
160
5. Bancha
Yuzu Peel (Japan Lime peel)
Brussel sprouts (fresh)
150
6. Bitter Melon (fresh)
120
7. Gyokuro
Radish (fresh)
110
8. Chili Pepper (dried)
100
9. Dried Seaweed
Lemon
90
10. Strawberry
Kiwi 
80
Note: 1 µg (microgram) is 1/1,000,000 g.
Color:
White
Odor:
Sour
Amount:
150-250mg per 100g
Vitamin E - Tocopherol
This vitamin is an antioxidant known as a tocopherol. Green teas grown in non-shaded environments contain more Vitamin E than teas grown in shaded environments. Sencha contains 50-70mg per 100g of
tea leaves and Matcha and Gyokuro contain 20-30mg per 100g. These amounts are equal to or higher than wheat germ.

Health Benefit:
Antioxidant through fat eliminating free radicals. Combats infertility. Prevents aging. Important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer pressure.

Top Ten Foods Containing Vitamin E (unit= mg /100g)
1.
Sencha Green tea
65.4
2.
High Linolic Acid Margarine
40.4
3. Sunflower Oil
39.0
4. Dried Almond
31.1
5. Cotton Seed Oil
29.8
6. Wheat Germ
29.3
7. Matcha
28.2
8. Safflower Oil
27.4
9. Komenuka (rice) Oil
26.1
10. Hazel Nuts
22.6
Color:
Yellow
Odor:
Tasteless
Amount:
Particular
Note: 1 µg (microgram) is 1/1,000,000 g.
Vitamin F - Fluorine
Particularly abundant in the Camellia family of plants. Green tea contains 40-1900 ppm (parts per million) of fluorin. Mature leaves contain more fluorine than young buds, and Bancha, made from mature
leaves contains a lot of fluorine.

Health Benefit:
Flourine adheres to the surface of the teeth producing an antioxidant coating this helps prevent cavities.

Color:
Colorless
Odor:
Tasteless
Amount:
90-350ppm
Vitamin K - Koagulations
Vitamin K occurs in many vegetables. Vitamin K is abundant in leafy greens.Dried green tea leaves have a very high concentration of vitamin K, but a cup of brewed green
provides only a small amount, 0.03 mcg per 3.5 fluid ounces (roughly half a cup).

Health Benefit:
Vitamin K, an essential nutrient necessary for blood clotting

Color:
Colorless
Odor:
Tasteless
Amount:
.06 mcg
Vitamin P - Flavonoids
A type of flavonoid known as rutin. The amount of Vitamin P in spring for first flush tea is lower 340mg per 100g while the summer tea content is higher 415mg per 100g. Bancha, in particular, contains
a high level of Vitamin P.

Health Benefit:
Strengthens the walls of capillary blood vessels, helps to fight high blood pressure.

Color:
Yellow
Odor:
Astringent
Amount:
340-415mg per 100g
Vitamin U
In higher quality teas, when dissolved, this vitamin generates a peculiar aroma like dried seaweed. Gyokuro contains as much as 25mg per 100g and high-quality Sencha
contains 10mg per 100g. Regular quality teas and Bancha contain very little of this vitamin.

Health Benefit:
Effective in fighting gastric ulcers. Also used as the main substance in digestive medicines

Color:
Colorless
Odor:
Tasteless
Amount:
10-25mg per 100g
Chlorophyll
Plays a vital role in photosynthesis. Its molecular structure is similar to hemoglobin contained in human red blood cells. If green tea is grown with a coveringover it, chlorophyll
tends to increase as the tea leaves attempt to absorb as much light as possible. This is why Gyokuro and Kabusecha (shaded teas) which contain much chlorophyll are deep green. Chlorophyll does not dissolve in water and doesn't affect the color of tea liquor.

Health Benefit:
Helps prevent odor and bad breath. Assists in blood production. Fights tumors.

Color:
Blue/Green
Odor:
Bitter
Amount:
15-30mg per 100g
Minerals (Ash Content)
Green tea contains 5-7% minerals (ash content). Major types of minerals are kalium, calcium, zinc, phosphorus, manganese, & copper. Zinc and copper are necessary elements to form antioxidants.
Pectin
A natural food fiber. The content level in green tea is not high, but it gives stickiness to the liquid and adds body to brewed tea.
Body:
Adds Stickiness Body
Odor:
Particular
Saccharides
Tea leaves photosynthesize and produce glucose, which converts to starch and provides cellulose leaf structure. These substances are called saccharides. Tea leaves photosynthesize and
produce glucose, which converts to starch and provides cellulose leaf structure. These substances are called saccharides. The amount of saccharides is lower in young buds that have not yet photosynthesized, but increase as tea leaves mature. High-end teas contain fewer saccharides than low-end. Cellulose does not dissolve in water and has no effect on tea taste. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose do dissolve in water but their content in tea liquor is extremely low.

Taste:
Tasteless
Saponin
Saponin is the component that causes the formation of bubbles in teas such as Matcha. Research indicates the following effects: anti-mold, anti-inflammation, anti-
allergy, anti-hypertension, and anti-obesity.

Taste:
Bitter Lingering
Ingredient Comparisons
Green teas have many nutrients contributing to health benefitsl. These are described in detailed comparisopn below for Japanese green teas.
SENCHA
Tanin: 13.0
Caffeine: 2.3
Amino Acid: 24.0
Fiber: 10.6
Minerals: 5.4
A: 7200iu
B1:
0.35
B2:
1.40
B3:
4.0
C:
250
E:
65.4
GYOKURO
Tanin: 10.0
Caffeine: 3.5
Aminos: 29.1
Fiber: 11.1
Minerals: 6.4
Vitamins

A: 12000iu
B1:
0.30
B2:
1.16
B3:
6.0
C:
110
E:
N/A
MATCHA
Tanin: 10.0
Caffeine:
3.2
Amino Acid: 30.7
Fiber: 10.0
Minerals: 7.4
A: 16000iu
B1:
0.60
B2:
1.35
B3:
4.0
C:
60
E:
28.2
BANCHA
Tanin: 11.0
Caffeine: 2.0
Aminos: 19.7
Fiber: 19.5
Minerals: 5.5
Vitamins
A:
7800iu
B1:
0.25
B2:
1.40
B3:
5.4
C:
150
E:
N/A
HOUJICHA
Tanin: 9.5
Caffeine: 1.9
Aminos: 18.2
Fiber: 18.7
Minerals: 5.5
Vitamins
A:
6700iu
B1:
0.10
B2:
0.82
B3:
5.6
C:
44
E:
N/A
 

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